FT 2017 packer

ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e RESTUARO ARCHITETTURA: Dott.ssa Laura Nicotra, “The Figurative Programme of the Architraval Friezes in the Forum of Trajan, Rome’ Thesis., University of Leicester, U.K. (06/2015) [pdf], 1-444.

Abstract – In Rome’s Forum of Trajan fragments from architraval friezes with figurative motifs of seven different types have been discovered over the centuries: eagle-headed griffins and candelabra; eagle-headed griffins and tripods; eagle-headed griffins and cupids; lionheaded griffins, cupids and vases; cupids in acanthus; Victories killing bulls and dressing candelabra; sphinxes. The aim of this research is to investigate if there is a connection between these decorative motifs and the architectural structures where they were exhibited, and if their iconographic choice depends on their deeper significance in the Forum’s wider context. Following an introduction to the history of the excavation of the Forum and to its different sections, for each frieze type is proposed a comprehensive analysis of all the fragments with an ascertained provenance from the Forum, which have never previously been studied together. Their location in the different buildings forming the Forum’s complex, as identified through information from excavation reports, drawings and the relevant reconstruction of the architectural orders is discussed, as well as their iconography and comparison with other artworks and monuments, which attests that Trajan chose a traditional iconography already used in previous similar examples in contexts comparable to the various structures of Trajan’s Forum. Against this background, we argue that the reliefs were part of a wider figurative programme, and Trajan expressed the messages he wanted to transmit through the traditional language of his predecessors. Griffins, cupids, Victories and sphinxes are polysemous mythological figures, attributes of different divinities: their symbolism related to diverse gods depending on their various aspects can be interpreted according to the function of the buildings forming the Forum when it is known, or can help to investigate the use of these structures when it is not known.


— Dott.ssa Laura Nicotra [Rome] Thesis., University of Leicester, U.K. (06/2015) [pdf], 1-444.



— Dott.ssa Laura Nicotra (2015), Trajanic Frieze Type II: Eagle-headed Griffins and Tripods discovered in the Forum of Trajan 1999-2000 excavations. FT 9151 | Fig. 5.2. Fragment II (1) in situ., p. 136 & Fig. 5.9. Meneghini’s drawing of Fragment II (1) and relevant measurements, p. 141.


— ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e RESTUARO ARCHITETTURA: Dott. Roberto Meneghini, I FORI IMPERIALI E I MERCATI DI TRAIANO – Storia e descrizione dei monumenti alla luce degli studi e degli scavi recenti [1991-2010], ROME: LIBRERIA DELLO STATO (2010), pp. 1-276 [in PDF].


— ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e RESTUARO ARCHITETTURA: I Fori Imperiali – Museo dei Fori Imperiali / Mercati di Traiano (1995-2017 & 1928-33) | The Imperial Fora – Museum of the Imperial Fora / Markets of Trajan (1995-2017 & 1928-33). Foto | stampa 1 di 289.

Rome - The Museum of the Imperial Fora: [L. to R.] Dr. Lucrezia Ungario - Director of the Museum, Umberto Croppi - City of Rome's Council Member for Cultural Policy, and the Hon. Dr. Giorgio Napolitano - President of the Italian Republic (Oct. 4th, 2010).

— ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e RESTUARO ARCHITETTURA: Museo dei Fori Imperiali – “Il Laboratorio s.r.l.” dell’Prof Arch. P. Martellotti / Dott.ssa Arch. Barbara Baldrati (1999-2002) | The Museum of the Imperial Fora by: “Il Laboratorio s.r.l.” Prof. P. Martellotti / Dr. B. Baldrati (1999-2002). Foto | stampa 1 di 44.

1.2. Rome - The Markets of Trajan / Museum of the Imperial Fora: Dr. Arch. Barbara Baldrati "il Laboratorio srl": The Studies, Drawings, and Recomposition of the Marble Architectural Sculptural Elements of the Imperial Fora (1999-2002).

— ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITITTURA: Il Foro di Traiano – scavi (1998-2017, 1989-1997, & 1928-33). | The Forum of Trajan – excavations (1998-2016, 1989-1997, 1928-33). Foto | stampa 1 di 469.

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA: Veduta del Foro di Traiano e il Palazzo Valentini a volte prima del 1885.

— ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e RESTAURO ARCHITETTURA: Prof. James E. Packer, Il Foro di Traiano. Breve studio dei monumenti | Prof. Packer, una lezione affascinante in inglese sul Foro di Traiano Roma (10|2013). [ENGLISH] VIDEO YOUTUBE [1:00:13].


— ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e FORO DI TRAIANO: Prof. James E. Packer, “The Column of Trajan: the topographical and cultural contexts,” JRA 21.(2008), pp. 471-78 [PDF pp. 1-9].


— ROMAN ARCHITECTURE – THE FORUM OF TRAJAN: Prof. James E. Packer, THE FORUM OF TRAJAN IN ROME. VOL. I-II, and PORTFOLIO. Berkeley: University of California Press (1997).

ROMA ARCHEOLOGICA & RESTAURO ARCHITTETURA: Risorge la Basilica Ulpia con l’innalzamento delle colonne - I lavori inizieranno entro la fine dell’anno, più veloci quelli sul Foro di Traiano, CORRIERE DELLA SERA (03|05|2015).

— ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e RESTUARO ARCHITETTURA: James E. Packer, Report from Rome: The Imperial Fora, a Retrospective [Relazione da Roma: I Fori Imperiali, una Retrospettiva]. AJA 101, April 1997, [PDF] 307-330.


– ROMA ARCHEOLOGIA e RESTUARO ARCHITETTURA: Rome, Forum of Trajan: The Architectural and Sculptural Elements Discovered During the Excavations (1998-2001). Foto Collection: Prof. James E. Packer, Rome Summer, 2001 (unpublished).
[Personal communication September 2001].

Rome, Forum of Trajan: The Architectural and Sculptural Elements Discovered During the Excavations (1998-2008). Foto Collection: Prof. James E. Packer, Rome Summer, 2001.